Strongyloides stercoralis infection in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients and related risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Strongyloidiasis is caused by nematode infections of the genus Strongyloides, mainly Strongyloides stercoralis, and affects tens of millions of people around the world. S. stercoralis hyperinfection and disseminated strongyloidiasis are unusual but potentially fatal conditions mostly due to Gram-negative bacteremia and sepsis, primarily affecting immunocompromised patients. Infections with immunosuppressive viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Human T-cell leucemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) have been reported as risk factors for strongyloidiasis. Hyperinfection syndrome has been described in HIV-positive patients following the use of corticosteroids or during immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In this research, we conducted a global systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the seroprevalence and odds ratios (ORs) of S. stercoralis infections in HIV-infected patients. A total of 3,649 records were screened, 164 studies were selected and evaluated in more detail, and 94 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall pooled prevalence of S. stercoralis infection in HIV positive patients was 5.1% (CI95%: 4%-6.3%), and a meta-analysis on six studies showed that with a pooled OR of 1.79 (CI95%: 1.18%-2.69%) HIV-positive men are at a higher risk of S. stercoralis infections (p<.0052) compared to HIV positive women.