Detection and genomic characterization of Bovine papillomavirus isolated from Chinese native cattle.
Bovine papillomaviruses (BPV) are small circular DNA viruses which can be widely spread in herd, inducing cattle tumours, therefore, leading economic losses in dairy and beef production industries. BPV-leads symptoms include cutaneous papillomas, fibropapillomas, urinary bladder and oesophageal carcinoma. As one of the most important producers of beef in the world, China has not provided systematic research to prevent the harm of BPV, particularly in papillomavirus molecular characterization which presents among Chinese native cattle which was known to have higher disease resistance. In this study, skin papilloma was observed and samples were collected following by histopathological analysis. We analysed all neoplasms samples and reviewed their degrees in acanthosis and/or hyperkeratosis. Full-length genomic sequencing was applied for all four isolated strains (JX180408, LA150909, HX160815, and BS160810) to exploring the molecular reason why BPV currently prevalent in Chinese native cattle. As a result, we identified that these four isolates were classified as BPV-1 and clustered into the Deltapapillomavirus genera. Our study also identified that BPV 1 isolates from Chinese indigenous cattle breeds belong to subtypes A which has a closer genetic background compare with their common ancestor and suggest it can be a more ancestral species. European isolates more recently diverged group (group B) contained almost exclusively European samples. In this study, we analysed the similarity of ORF between Chinese isolated BPV 1 and BPV 1 reference strains and listed results. This study provides the complete genomic characterization of BPVs circulating in Chinese native cattle breeds for the first time, which provide a detailed description of how diverse strains may cause skin tumour among Chinese local breed cattle therefore critical for further epidemiological study of relevant diseases.