Climatic niche characteristics of native and invasive Lilium lancifolium.
One of the topics currently under discussion in biological invasions is whether the species' climatic niche has been conserved or, alternatively, has diverged during invasions. Here, we explore niche dynamic processes using the complex invasion history model of Lilium lancifolium, which is the first tested case of a native species (Korea) with two hypothesized spatial (regional and intercontinental) and temporal arrivals: (1) as an archaeophyte in East Asia (before AD 1500); and (2) as a neophyte in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand (after AD 1500). Following a niche examination through both environmental and geographical spaces, the species in the archaeophyte range has apparently filled the ancestral native niche and, rather, would have increased it considerably. The species as a neophyte shows a closer climatic match with the archaeophyte range than with the native one. This pattern of niche similarity suggests that the neophyte range was probably colonized by a subset of archaeophyte propagules adapted to local climate that promoted the species' establishment. Overall, niche conservatism is proposed at each colonization step, from native to archaeophyte, and from archaeophyte to neophyte ranges. We detected signals of an advanced invasion stage within the archaeophyte range and traces of an early introduction stage in neophyte ranges.