Genomic and developmental characterisation of a novel bunyavirus infecting the crustacean Carcinus maenas.
Carcinus maenas is in the top 100 globally invasive species and harbours a wide diversity of pathogens, including viruses. We provide a detailed description for a novel bunyavirus (Carcinus maenas Portunibunyavirus 1) infecting C. maenas from its native range in the Faroe Islands. The virus genome is tripartite, including large (L) (6766 bp), medium (M) (3244 bp) and small (S) (1608 bp) negative sense, single-stranded RNA segments. Individual genomic segments are flanked by 4 bp regions of similarity (CCUG). The segments encode an RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase, glycoprotein, non-structural protein with a Zinc-Finger domain and a nucleoprotein. Most show highest identity to the 'Wenling Crustacean Virus 9' from an unidentified crustacean host. Phylogenomics of crustacean-infecting bunyaviruses place them across multiple bunyavirus families. We discuss the diversity of crustacean bunyaviruses and provide an overview of how these viruses may affect the health and survival of crustacean hosts, including those inhabiting niches outside of their native range.