New North American records for the old world psyllid Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae) with biological observations.
The Palearctic psyllid Heterotrioza chenopodii (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Triozidae) belongs to a complex of psyllids having plants in the Amaranthaceae (including the former Chenopodiaceae) as hosts. Geographic records for this introduced species in North America date from 1988, and include a number of coastal regions in eastern Canada, the Northeastern U.S., inland Virginia, coastal British Columbia, California, and wetland habitats near Lincoln, Nebraska. We updated North American records for H. chenopodii to include inland Washington and Oregon, southwestern Idaho, northcentral California, western Colorado, and southern and central Alberta. Psyllids were collected from Atriplex micrantha (Amaranthaceae) and unidentified Atriplex species, and from yellow sticky cards that had been placed in potato fields to monitor arthropod pests of potatoes. Traits of the adult psyllid, fifth-instar nymph, and egg used in identifying specimens are summarized. We provide the first photographs of the egg, fifth-instar nymph, and terminalia of the adult male psyllid. Rearing trials showed that H. chenopodii developed on A. micrantha, A. hortensis, Chenopodium album, C. berlandieri, and garden beet, Beta vulgaris, but failed to develop on Amaranthus tricolor. Development was most rapid on the two Atriplex species. Heterotrioza chenopodii has been shown in Europe to exhibit photoperiod-controlled dimorphism in wing size, producing a long-winged form in spring and summer, and a short-winged form in autumn. We confirmed in rearing trials and by field collections that populations of H. chenopodii from central Washington State also exhibit this dimorphism. Short-winged forms began replacing long-winged forms in field populations between late August and early October.