Surveillance and control of vectors and related pathogens in the China-Kazakhstan border.
Objective: To investigate the type of vectors and related pathogens in the China-Kazakhstan border, and to provide a scientific basis for identifying and preventing cross-border transmission of alien species and epidemic situation. Methods: From 2009 to 2018, five lines for the surveillance and control of vectors were set up in the China-Kazakhstan border to capture and collect host animals and free vectors on body surface at the port of entry and exit. After taxonomic identification based on morphology, serology, and PCR molecular biology and pathogen detection and screening, positive products were cloned and sequenced, and DNAMan and BLAST analyses were performed. Results: In the first line of vector surveillance and control at the port of entry and exit, 66 batches of vectors and animal carcasses belonging to 27 species were intercepted, i.e., 11 batches of rodents belonging to 2 families, 3 genera, and 5 species (n=11), 4 batches of fleas belonging to 2 families, 3 genera, and 3 species (n=265), 3 batches of ticks belonging to 2 families, 3 genera, and 3 species (n=241), 2 batches of cockroaches belonging to 2 species (n=14), 1 batch of bat (n=1), 1 batch of corsac fox (n=1), and 37 batches of poultry (chickens, ducks, and pigeons) and small animals (n=39), as well as 7 batches of large animals (sheep and camels), bovine bones, animal skins, viscera, and cadavers belonging to 7 species. In the first, second, and third lines of vector surveillance and control, new invasive species and populations were observed after the cross-border invasion of vectors, which posed great threats and caused economic losses. In the fourth line of vector surveillance and control, 27 species of small mammals, fleas, and ticks were collected along the China-Kazakhstan border. Eight pathogens were detected in six species of rodents, four pathogens were detected in five species of fleas, and three pathogens were detected in two species of ticks. A total of 546 positive samples with 13 pathogens were detected in their hosts. Conclusion: The vectors and pathogens have been detected along the China-Kazakhstan border. It provides a basis for the vector surveillance and control to prevent its cross-border transmission.