Vulpia bromoides in Norway - distribution, ecology and present situation.
Vulpia bromoides is basically a European species with introduced occurrences towards the margins of N Europe. A few introduced occurrences are known in Norway, but also some that might be native. All of these are found in the southwest, on the islands of Rennesøy and Klosterøy. These populations have been monitored since 2009, most intensely in 2011 and 2015. Here the species is found on shallow pasture soils and along roadsides. Populations are found within two major areas, one on the southern side of Rennesøy and another on two hills on Klosterøy. The number of fertile straws has been counted and in two metapopulations the numbers were estimated to be about 210,000 and 810,000. The plants are winter annuals. Huge fluctuations in the number of plants present above ground has been observed, both in the course of the growing season and from year to year. This is considered to be within the normal and natural variation interval of the species, and should not be misunderstood as a threat. The number of metapopulations has been the same during the monitored period. Although a few populations may have disappeared, the overall number of populations has been more or less the same, and the same applies to the total number of plants. Spraying of manure is a possible threat to the species.