Infection, colonization and shedding of Campylobacter and Salmonella in animals and their contribution to human disease: a review.
Livestock meat and offal contribute significantly to human nutrition as sources of high-quality protein and micronutrients. Livestock products are increasingly in demand, particularly in low- and middle-income settings where economies are growing and meat is increasingly seen as an affordable and desirable food item. Demand is also driving intensification of livestock keeping and processing. An unintended consequence of intensification is increased exposure to zoonotic agents, and a contemporary emerging problem is infection with Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. from livestock (avian and mammalian), which can lead to disease, malabsorption and undernutrition through acute and chronic diarrhoea. This can occur at the farm, in households or through the food chain. Direct infection occurs when handling livestock and through bacteria shed into the environment, on food preparation surfaces or around the house and surroundings. This manuscript critically reviews Campylobacter and Salmonella infections in animals, examines the factors affecting colonization and faecal shedding of bacteria of these two genera as well as risk factors for human acquisition of the infection from infected animals or environment and analyses priority areas for preventive actions with a focus on resource-poor settings.