Biology, impact, and management of common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.).
Common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.), native to Europe, is widely distributed worldwide as a difficult-to-control weed due to its intermittent and prolonged emergence period, rapid plant maturity, and prolific production of highly dispersive seeds. Genetic diversity, low innate seed dormancy, and evolving herbicide resistance are contributing towards S. oleraceus successful distribution in agroecosystems. In Australia, this weed has raised its status from a relative obscurity to economically damaging weed, particularly in conservation tillage systems. The weed has been reported to evolve resistance against group M and B herbicides, while more populations have been identified as having a moderate risk of developing resistance across Australia. Over the last 10 years, the dominance of S. oleraceus has been increased and has gained the status of second major broadleaf weed. Post-emergent herbicides, such as carfentrazone, florasulam, bromoxynil octanate, and sulfentrazone, either alone or in combination has been found effective against this weed. Double-knock techniques have been considered effective for suppressing S. oleraceus in fallow lands. Despite this, integrated and sustainable approach involving selecting competitive crops, strategic tillage, and herbicide rotation are some of the reliable and efficient techniques for long-term control of this weed. Based on this, an article was designed to highlight the current scenario and future prospects of this highly invasive weed in agro-ecological systems. This article will help in developing understanding related to the eco-physiological aspect regulating the biology, invasion, and management of S. oleraceus.