The role of landscape composition and disturbance type in mediating salt marsh resilience to feral hog invasion.
Habitat patch composition and configuration mediate the fitness and distribution of many species. However, we know little about how this landscape complementation may influence the distribution of an invasive species' ecological impacts and, in turn, how this affects ecosystem resilience to disturbance. We surveyed >820 km of coastline to evaluate how landscape complementation mediates patterns in invasive feral hog (Sus scrofa) rooting, trampling and wallowing disturbances in southeastern US salt marshes and assessed marsh resilience to these behaviors in an 8-site survey and 13-month field experiment. We discovered that hog rooting and trampling most often occur where hardwood forest comprises >30% and salt marsh <22% of habitat surrounding each surveyed site, respectively, while wallowing correlated most strongly with salt marsh invertebrate densities. At the 8 survey sites, vegetation cover, soil organic carbon, and surface elevation were consistently lower, and soil anoxia and porewater ammonium-nitrogen higher, in hog-disturbed relative to undisturbed areas. The experiment revealed that vegetation can recover when rooted or trampled, but remains depressed when wallowed or repeatedly disturbed. Together, these findings provide novel evidence that habitat patch composition at landscape scales can act together with local habitat attributes to dictate invasive species' disturbance patterns and highlight areas most vulnerable to invaders. In salt marshes, insights gleaned from such consideration of landscape complementation can inform conservation and management strategies for curbing the impact of this prolific, global invader.