Parthenium: impacts and coping strategies in Central West Asia.
Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus) is a weed of particular global concern due to its aggressive and highly adaptable nature, establishing and expanding rapidly in a wide range of environmental and climatic conditions. In view of the threats posed by parthenium, this evidence note aims to provide evidence and recommendations for decision makers in Pakistan and the Central West Asia region, as well as for external organizations seeking to manage parthenium sustainably. This information will be useful for decision makers to prioritize investment and interventions in responding to the continuing threat posed by this invasive weed. This evidence note is structured into 4 sections. Section 1 introduces the environmental and agricultural impacts of parthenium, highlighting its distribution across the globe and in Pakistan, followed by details of the weed's ecological and biological attributes that enable its rapid expansion and negative impacts. Section 2 synthesizes the results of household surveys conducted in Pakistan in 2018, highlighting farmers' knowledge and perceptions of parthenium and its impacts, the economic impact of the crop on wheat related incomes and the control measures currently used. Section 3 provides information on ongoing and recent research on control methods, highlighting significant new findings and existing information resources. Section 4 concludes with some recommendations for key stakeholder groups in Pakistan.