Susceptibility profile of Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) from montclair, California, to commonly used pesticides, with note on resistance to pyriproxyfen.
The peridomestic anthropophilic Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is originated from the wild zoophilic subspecies Aedes aegypti formosus in sub-Saharan Africa, and currently has a broad distribution in human-modified environments of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. In California, breeding populations were initially detected in 2013 in the cities of Fresno, Madera, and San Mateo, and now can be found in 188 cities of 12 counties in the state. Recent genetic studies suggest that this species invaded California on multiple occasions from several regions of the United States and northern Mexico prior to initial detection. As an invasive species and vector for numerous arboviruses, Ae. aegypti is a primary target of surveillance and control in California. In southern California city of Montclair, a population was identified in September 2015, from which a short-term colony was established in an insectary. The susceptibility of this field population to commonly used pesticides with various modes of action, including 15 formulations against larvae and four against adults, was determined, in reference to a susceptible laboratory colony of the same species. No resistance was shown to most pesticides tested. However, tolerance or reduced susceptibility to spinosad, spinetoram, diflubezuron, and fipronil was detected, and modest levels of resistance to pyriproxyfen (resistance ratio=38.7-fold at IE50 and 81.5-fold at IE90) was observed. Results are discussed based on the field usage and modes of action of the pesticides tested. Strategic selection and application of pesticides against this population of Ae. aegypti in the urban environments should be taken into consideration.