Epidemiological investigation and phylogenetic analysis of caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 in sheep of China.
Caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 (CPIV3) is a new member of the Respirovirus genus in the Paramyxivirudae family, mainly causing respiratory disease. Up to now, accumulating evidence has focused on CPIV3 infection in goats, with little understood about its epidemiology in sheep. To that end, we collected 1,163 sheep sera samples from nine provinces/autonomous regions in 2012 and 1,863 samples from six provinces/autonomous regions during 2016-2017, with serological prevalence of 50.3% (95% CI: 47.5, 53.3) and 64.9% (95% CI: 62.9, 67.2), respectively. Pathogenic detection by qRT-PCR was also performed on serum samples collected in 2016-2017, and the percentage of CPIV3 positive samples was 21.5% (95% CI: 19.7, 23.5). Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed 11 novel CPIV3 strains based on the M gene sequences. The M gene and full-length sequences of CPIV3 strains derived from sheep shared high nucleotide similarity with goat-origin strains, indicating conserved genome characteristics between the viruses. Furthermore, sequence evolution and epidemiological analysis show that CPIV3 is widespread throughout China. This is the first report describing CPIV3 infection in sheep in China, showing a high sero-prevalence and contributes to the assessment of the epidemiology of CPIV3 in China.