Characterization and evolution of countries affected by bovine brucellosis (1996-2014).
This paper describes the global distribution and temporal evolution of bovine brucellosis due to Brucella abortus during a 19-year period (1996-2014) using the information officially reported to the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) by veterinary services of 156 countries. Variables that can influence the health status of bovine brucellosis (i.e., year, per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP), continent and bovine population) were also analysed. Countries were classified into three categories of health situations: ENZOOTIC: countries infected, which may have been free of brucellosis but for periods of fewer than 3 years; NON-ENZOOTIC: countries where the disease was present but that had at least a 3-year period without the disease; and FREE: countries where the disease remained absent during the whole period. The countries free from bovine brucellosis, or in the process of eradication, were located in Oceania and Europe, while the more affected regions were Central and South America, Africa and parts of Asia. Among the Non-Enzootic countries, the results showed that a very high proportion managed to control the disease during the period of study, with a sharp decline in the percentage of infected countries from 71% in 1996 to 10% in 2014. Among the Enzootic countries, a much smaller proportion managed to control the disease, with a slight drop in the percentage of infected countries from 92% in 1996 to 80% in 2014. A relationship was found between the status of the disease and the availability of economic resources; thus, countries with a high GDP per capita tended to be free from bovine brucellosis. On the other hand, countries with a larger bovine population showed a greater probability to have the disease present. An increase in surveillance programmes and implementation of control policies were observed during the period of study.