Lathyrus sativus diamine oxidase counteracts histamine-induced cell proliferation, migration and pro-angiogenic mediators release in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2.
Because histamine is a modulator of cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness, this study aimed at investigating the effect of Lathyrus sativus-derived diamine oxidase (LSAO) and its mechanism of action on Caco-2 cell line, considering that LSAO catalizes the oxidative deamination of histamine to the corresponding aldehyde, NH3 and H2O2. Histamine (0.01-1 µM) caused a proliferative effect on Caco-2 cells promoting cell migration, invasion and nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor release. Histamine (1 µM) stimulus also down regulated occludin expression, favouring up regulation of pro-proliferative nuclear protein Ki67. Incubation with LSAO (0.004-0.4 µM) resulted in a significant inhibition of histamine-induced effects. LSAO rescued occludin expression and down regulated Ki67, and it inhibited histamine-induced increase of both MMP-2 and 9 expression. Histamine effects were mediated by RhoA-GTP down regulation and inversely related to phospho-p38 MAPK/p50/65 up regulation. These effects were counteracted by LSAO incubation. Histamine catabolism by LSAO accounts for a significant down regulation of proliferation and invasiveness of Caco-2 cells. This study highlights the importance to control histamine levels in contrasting pro-angiogenic and metastatization capability of colon cancer cells and expands the knowledge about the diamine oxidase from L. sativus seeding as a phytotherapeutic approach for colon cancer.