Aedes albopictus in America: current perspectives and future challenges.
The Zika virus outbreak in Miami-Dade, Florida, in 2016 heightened our awareness of the presence, expansion and vectorial capacity of invasive Aedes mosquitoes in the USA. The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has not been implicated as a vector during an arbovirus outbreak in the USA, however this species is established in at least 40 states, including Hawaii, and has a greater geographic distribution in North America than Ae. aegypti. Current mosquito control strategies may be insufficient to control Ae. albopictus in the USA, given the affinity of this species for cryptic habitats and diurnal activity. Accordingly, control efforts have had to be creative. For example, more mosquito abatement districts are modifying truck-mounted sprayers to apply larvicides to cryptic habitats in, inspecting and treating corrugated extension gutters as part of source reduction campaigns, and improving ultra-low volume (ULV) adulticiding methods to achieve higher reduction in adult Ae. albopictus. This review discusses Ae. albopictus surveillance, action thresholds for intervention, rising concerns on resistance, public involvement, challenges facing mosquito control professionals and how to address gaps for a sustainable surveillance and management programme.