Volatile organic compounds from Paenibacillus polymyxa KM2501-1 control Meloidogyne incognita by multiple strategies.
Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) cause serious crop losses worldwide. In this study, we investigated the nematicidal factors and the modes and mechanisms of action involved in nematode control by Paenibacillus polymyxa KM2501-1. Treatment of the second-stage juveniles (J2) juveniles of PPN Meloidogyne incognita with the biological control agent KM2501-1 resulted in a mortality of 87.66% in vitro and reduced symptoms on tomato by up to 82.61% under greenhouse conditions. We isolated 11 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from strain KM2501-1, of which 8 had contact nematicidal activity, 6 had fumigant activity, and 5 acted as stable chemotactic agents to M. incognita. The VOCs provided a comprehensive strategy against PPNs that included "honey-trap", fumigant, attractant and repellent modes. Furfural acetone and 2-decanol functioned as "honey-traps" attracting M. incognita and then killing it by contact or fumigation. Two other VOCs, 2-nonanone and 2-decanone, as well as strain KM2501-1 itself, destroyed the integrity of the intestine and pharynx. Collectively our results indicate that VOCs produced by P. polymyxa KM2501-1 act through diverse mechanisms to control M. incognita. Moreover, the novel "honey-trap" mode of VOC-nematode interaction revealed in this study extends our understanding of the strategies exploited by nematicidal biocontrol agents.