Chemometric classification of Garcinia madruno raw material: impact of the regional origin and ripeness stage of a neotropical exotic species.
Garcinia madruno is a neotropical tree characterized by its exotic fruit and its functional compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression and variability of the chemical markers of G. madruno according to the part of the plant used, the origin and the ripeness stage by applying chemometric tools. A total of 167 samples were evaluated, and 27 compounds were quantified per sample. The expression of amentoflavone, morelloflavone-type biflavonoids and polyisoprenylated benzophenones (PIBs) promoted intergroup differentiation, whereas the expression of GB-2a-type biflavonoids promoted intragroup cluster generation. Epicarp was the main source of biflavonoids and the secondary source of PIBs, with values up to 25% in some individuals. The origin of the fruit significantly impacted the expression of metabolites, whereas the ripeness stage did not. The results indicate that epicarp is a good source of functional compounds and, with appropriately agronomic development, could be improved even more.