Sequencing the plastid genome of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida, Asteraceae) from a herbarium specimen.
We report the first plastome sequence of giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida); with this new genome information, we assessed the phylogeny of Asteraceae and the transcriptional profiling against glyphosate resistance in giant ragweed. Assembly and genic features show a normal angiosperm quadripartite plastome structure with no signatures of deviation in gene directionality. Comparative analysis revealed large inversions across the plastome of giant ragweed and the previously sequenced members of the plant family. Asteraceae plastid genomes contain two inversions of 22.8 and 3.3 kb; the former is located between trnS-GCU and trnG-UCC genes, and the latter between trnE-UUC and trnT-GGU genes. The plastid genome sequences of A. trifida and the related species, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, are identical in gene content and arrangement, but they differ in length. The phylogeny is well-resolved and congruent with previous hypotheses about the phylogenetic relationship of Asteraceae. Transcriptomic analysis revealed divergence in the relative expressions at the exonic and intronic levels, providing hints toward the ecological adaptation of the genus. Giant ragweed shows various levels of glyphosate resistance, with introns displaying higher expression patterns at resistant time points after the assumed herbicide treatment.