Control of Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) using high temperatures.
Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts, is one of the world's most important pests of stored grain. Common in Africa and Asia, it is a quarantine insect for much of the rest of the world where methyl bromide has traditionally been used for its control. However, this ozone-depleting fumigant is now heavily restricted, and alternate methods of control are required. In a two-step process, we examined the use of high-temperature exposure as one such method of control. First, different life stages were held at 45°C for different periods to calculate LT50 (lethal time to 50% mortality) values. In descending order, the most heat-tolerant life stages at 45°C were diapausing larvae (LT50=41-122 h) > nondiapausing larvae (LT50=47 h) > adults (LT50=33 h) > pupae (LT50=25 h) > eggs (LT50=10 h). Second, diapausing larvae (the most heat-tolerant stage) were held at 45, 50, 55, and 60°C for different periods to calculate LT50, LT95, LT99, and probit 9 (99.9968% mortality) values. Estimated LT99 values for diapausing larvae were 288 h at 45°C, 6 h at 50°C, 1.1 h at 55°C, and 1 h at 60°C. Based on these results, an exposure of 2 h at 60°C is recommended to control T. granarium with high temperatures. To meet requirements for control of quarantine pests, exposure of between 2 and 12 h at 50-60°C is recommended to cause probit 9 mortality, but additional experiments are needed to get a better estimate of probit 9.