Field-evolved resistance of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to synthetic insecticides in Puerto Rico and Mexico.
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), is one of the main pests of corn in many areas of the American continent. The reliance on pesticides to control fall armyworm has led to the development of insecticide resistance in many regions. We determined the resistance levels of fall armyworm to insecticides of different modes of action in fall armyworm populations from Puerto Rico and several Mexican states with different insecticide use patterns. Mexican populations that expressed higher resistance ratios (RR50) were: Sonora (20-fold to chlorpyriphos), Oaxaca (19-fold to permethrin), and Sinaloa (10-fold to flubendamide). The Puerto Rico population exhibited a remarkable field-evolved resistance to many pesticides. The RR50 to the insecticides tested were: flubendiamide (500-fold), chlorantraniliprole (160-fold), methomyl (223-fold), thiodicarb (124-fold), permethrin (48-fold), chlorpyriphos (47-fold), zeta-cypermethrin (35-fold), deltamethrin (25-fold), triflumuron (20-fold), spinetoram (14-fold). Spinosad (eightfold), emamectin benzoate and abamectin (sevenfold) displayed lower resistance ratio. However, these compounds are still effective to manage fall armyworm resistance in Puerto Rico. Fall armyworm populations from Mexico show different levels of susceptibility, which may reflect the heterogeneity of the pest control patterns in this country. The status of insecticide resistance in the fall armyworm from Puerto Rico indicates a challenging situation for the control of this pest with these insecticides in the close future. Lessons learned from this research might be applied in regions with recent invasions of fall armyworm in Africa.