Discovery of three kairomones in relation to trap and lure development for spotted lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).
The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White), is an invasive phloem feeder recently introduced into North America that attacks a broad range of woody plants. When feeding in large numbers, they can seriously damage or kill a tree. Their preferred host is the invasive tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae), but they are serious pests of grape, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitales: Vitaceae) and a number of other commercially important host plants. Volatile collections were conducted on tree-of-heaven and grape, and the most abundant compounds from these plants present in samples and indicated in the literature were tested for attraction in the laboratory and field. Three compounds, methyl salicylate, (Z)-3-hexenol, and (E,E)-α-farnesene, were found to be highly attractive in laboratory behavioral bioassays. Methyl salicylate was attractive to all stages of L. delicatula, whereas the youngest nymphs were not as attracted to (Z)-3-hexenol or (E,E)-α-farnesene in laboratory bioassays. When comparing individual compounds, methyl salicylate attracted the most L. delicatula. Methyl salicylate lures in the field produced a two- to four-fold increase in captures compared with unbaited controls, and field testing also revealed a significant positive dose response. Of the several types of sticky bands tested, Web-Cote Industries sticky bands were found to be most efficient at trapping L. delicatula adults and nymphs.