Global distribution and invasion pattern of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).
Since the start of the 20th century, many invasive alien species (IAS) have spread rapidly around the world, causing serious threats to economies, societies and the environment. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important quarantine insect species in many countries that spread around the world over the last century. This review collected information on the distribution of B. dorsalis to explore the patterns of its invasion expansion. We found B. dorsalis to be distributed in 75 countries (comprised of 124 geographical distribution regions: provinces or states) in Asia, Africa, North America, South America and Oceania up to 2017. Asia and Africa were the most represented regions, accounting for 86.3% of the total number of countries. From 1910 to 1990, B. dorsalis was only found in five countries, but in the last three decades, it has experienced a sharp increase in its rate of spread, invading 70 more countries. Global temperature anomaly has significantly positive correlation with the spread of B. dorsalis. The results of this review provide a theoretical basis for understanding and predicting the continued spread of B. dorsalis under global changes.