Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

First detection of novel enterovirus G recombining a torovirus papain-like protease gene associated with diarrhoea in swine in South Korea.

Abstract

Enterovirus species G (EV-G) comprises a highly diversity of 20 genotypes that is prevalent in pig populations, with or without diarrhoea. In the present study, a novel EV-G strain (KOR/KNU-1811/2018) that resulted from cross-order recombination was discovered in diagnostic faecal samples from neonatal pigs with diarrhoea that were negative for swine enteric coronaviruses and rotavirus. The recombinant EV-G genome possessed an exogenous 594-nucleotide (198-amino acid) sequence, flanked by two viral 3Cpro cleavage sites at the 5′ and 3′ ends in its 2C/3A junction region. This insertion encoded a predicted protease similar to the porcine torovirus papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP), which was recently found in the EV-G1, -G2, and -G17 genomes. The complete KNU-1811 genome shared 73.7% nucleotide identity with a prototype EV-G1 strain, but had 83.9%-86.7% sequence homology with the global EV-G1-PLCP strains. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the Korean recombinant EV-G's own VP1 and inserted foreign PLCP genes are most closely related independently to contemporary chimeric G1-PLCP and G17-PLCP strains respectively. These results implied that the torovirus-derived PLCP gene might have undergone continuous nucleotide mutations in the respective EV-G genome following its independent acquisition through naturally occurring recombination. Our results advance the understanding of the genetic evolution of EV-G driven by infrequent viral recombination events, by which EV-G populations laterally gain an exotic gene encoding a virulence factor from heterogeneous virus families, thereby causing clinical disease in swine.