Assessing the possible causes of hemolytic anemia associated with lumpy skin disease naturally infected buffaloes.
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an acute viral disease caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the Poxviridae family. LSD is characterized by lumps covering most parts of the body. Few approaches have been developed for LSD in water buffaloes; thus, the relationship between the hematological and biochemical characteristics of this disease was executed out. From July 2014 to November 2016, 608 female non-pregnant lactating buffaloes during an outbreak of LSD in Egypt were thoroughly examined. LSD morbidity rate was 1.97% (12 buffaloes) without recorded mortality. Infected buffaloes manifest fever, anorexia, and an efflorescence of different sized skin lumps that range from a few to multiple lesions. Blood samples were obtained at first day and 3 weeks post-outcrop of the skin lumps. Skin examinations showed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Erythrogram from buffaloes infected with LSD revealed non-significant alterations during the early disease stages, whereas hemolytic anemia was obvious in the later stages. Biochemical analyses revealed the occurrence of hypophosphatemia with an imbalance in the oxidant anti-oxidant status, a raise of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and excess of liver, heart, and kidney markers. This study concluded that buffaloes show limited susceptibility to LSD, although the presence of hypophosphatemia could exaggerate hemolytic anemia under an oxidant-anti-oxidant imbalance and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines.