Diversity and recombination analysis of Cotton leaf curl Multan virus: a highly emerging begomovirus in northern India.
Background: Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD), caused by begomoviruses in association with satellite molecules, is a major threat to cotton production causing enormous losses to cotton crop in most of the cotton growing countries including Indian subcontinent. In this study, isolates of begomovirus and satellite molecules associated with CLCuD were collected from North India (Haryana, New Delhi). They were amplified employing rolling circle replication mechanism, cloned, sequenced and, their phylogenetic and recombination analysis was performed. Results: The five Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) isolates investigated in this study showed monopartite organization of the genome typical of Old World begomoviruses. Nucleotide sequence analyses assigned them as the strains of CLCuMuV and were designated as CLCuMuV-SR13, CLCuMuV-SR14, CLCuMuV-ND14, CLCuMuV-ND15 and CLCuMuV-SR15. The genome of CLCuMuV-SR13 shared a highest level of nucleotide sequence identity (98%) with CLCuMuV (JN678804), CLCuMuV-SR14 and CLCuMuV-SR15 exhibited 96% with CLCuMuV (KM096471), while isolates CLCuMuV-ND15 and CLCuMuV-SR15 revealed 96% sequence identity with CLCuMuV (AY765253). The four betasatellite molecules investigated in this study shared 95-99% nucleotide sequence identity with Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) from India. The betasatellite molecules were designated as CLCuMB-SR13, CLCuMB-SR14, CLCuMB-ND14 and CLCuMB-ND15. Alphasatellite molecules in this study, designated as GLCuA-SR14, GLCuA-ND14 and GLCuA-SR15, revealed 98% identity with Guar leaf curl alphasatellite (GLCuA) reported from Pakistan. Conclusion: The phylogenetic and recombination studies concluded that the isolates of CLCuMuV genomes undertaken in this study have a potential recombinant origin. Remarkably, significant recombination was detected in almost all the genes with contribution of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran Virus (CLCuKoV) in IR, V1, V2, C1, C4 and C5 regions and of CLCuMuV in C2 region of CLCuMuV-SR14. CLCuKoV also donated in C2, C3 regions of CLCuMuV-ND14; V1, V2, C2 and C3 regions of CLCuMuV-ND15 and C1 of CLCuMuV-SR15. Altogether, these observations signify the uniqueness in Indian CLCuMuV isolates showing contribution of CLCuKoV in all the genes. An interesting observation was frequent identification of GLCuA in CLCuD leaf samples.