The defense system for Bidens pilosa root exudate treatments in Pteris multifida gametophyte.
According to the novel weapons hypothesis, root exudates are the inhibition factors for native species growth and development through invasive plants. It is hypothesized that antioxidant system (AOS) presents an effective role in plant defense system. The allelopathy indexes of P. multifida gametophyte biomass and sporogonium conversions rates turn negative with the dose and time effects, and the synthetical allelopathic effect index was -55.07% at 100% treatments under root exudates treatments. Under transmission electron microscopy, the cell structures turn burry. Next, AOS and programmed cell death (PCD) were tested in this study. In AOS, strong activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were identified in gametophyte cells under the treatments, as well as the contents of glutathione, ascorbic acid and reduced ascorbate, while GPX activity decreased. Based on the input (SOD activity) and the output (GST activity) of antioxidant system, and the decreasing system control would be a reason leading gametophyte death under root exudates. At day 10, PCD would get its peak of 46.93% at 100% root exudates. We found a dynamic balance of PCD and AOS under the exudates treatments. We detected hexadecanoic acid, ethylene glycol and undecane are three major chemicals in root exudates. Our results provide a reference of AOS and PCD working under root exudates treatments in plants and offer novel strategy for the native species protection and invasion plants control in environment science.