Lipases associated with plant defense against pathogens.
When facing microbe invaders, plants activate genetic and metabolic defense mechanisms and undergo extracellular and intracellular changes to obtain a certain level of host resistance. Dynamic adjustment and adaptation occur in structures containing lipophilic compounds and cellular metabolites. Lipids encompassing fatty acids, fatty acid-based polymers, and fatty acid derivatives are part of the fundamental architecture of cells and tissues and are essential compounds in numerous biological processes. Lipid-associated plant defense responses are mostly facilitated by the activation of lipases (lipid hydrolyzing proteins), which cleave or transform lipid substrates in various subcellular compartments. In this review, several types of plant defense-associated lipases are described, including their molecular aspects, enzymatic actions, cellular functions, and possible functional relevance in plant defense. Defensive roles are discussed considering enzyme properties, lipid metabolism, downstream regulation, and phenotypic traits in loss-of-function mutants.