Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract Full Text

Pathogens and parasitoids of forest pest insects in the region of the Forest Protection Station Plovdiv (Bulgaria), during the period 1990-2017.


During the period 1990-2017, a survey of the entomopathogens and parasitoids of several pest insects was conducted, including the lepidopterans Lymantria dispar, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, Leucoma salicis, Malacosoma neustria, Orthosia cerasi, Aporia crataegi, Operophtera brumata, Eilema complana, Tortix viridana, Archips xylosteana, Paranthrene tabaniformis, Gypsonoma aceriana, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, T. solitaria, Phyllocnistis unipunctella, the coleopterans Saperda populnea, Ips typographus, I. acuminatus, I. sexdentatus, Pityogenes chalcographus, Dryocoetes autographus, Hylurgops palliatus, Phyllobius sp. and the hymenopterans Diprion pini, Neodiprion sertifer, Gilpinia sp. and Tremex fuscicornis. As a result of these studies 5 viruses, 1 protozoan species, 7 microsporidian species, 5 species of entomopathogenic fungi and 46 parasitoid species have been documented in 27 host insects collected in the region of the Forest Protection Station Plovdiv. The first successful introduction in Bulgaria of the entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga maimaiga in populations of L. dispar was conducted in 1999 in the region of the Forest Protection Station at Plovdiv (in the village of Gorni Domlyan, Karlovo Forestry) and 7 subsequent introductions were later performed in the region of the station. As a result, L. dispar density has been maintained at low levels in that area and only 60 hectares were sprayed with insecticides for L. dispar control in the last 18 years. Another success was the first field release in Europe and Bulgaria of the entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga aulicae in a healthy population of the brown tail moth, Euproctis chrysorrhoea, in 2016 in the village of Zhenda (Kardzhali Forestry). Investigations in 2017 showed that 19% of E. chrysorrhoea larvae sampled from release sites had died due to infection by E. aulicae.