Vertical sampling in tree canopies for Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) life stages and its egg parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae).
The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an invasive agricultural and nuisance pest that has established across much of the United States and caused significant crop losses in the Mid-Atlantic region. While it has been monitored extensively using ground-deployed pheromone traps, the vertical distribution of its life stages in the canopy of wild tree hosts has not been examined. In Virginia, small pyramid traps baited with 'low-dose' H. halys pheromone lures were deployed via a pulley system at the lower, mid-, and upper canopy of female tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle) in 2016 and 2017 and male A. altissima and hackberry (Celtis occidentalis L.) in 2017. Weekly captures of adults and nymphs were recorded throughout each season. Each year, additional female A. altissima trees were felled during the two main periods of H. halys oviposition. The number and relative locations of all pentatomid egg masses found on foliage were recorded and any parasitoids that emerged from them were identified. Halyomorpha halys adults and nymphs were captured in greatest numbers in upper canopy traps and in lowest numbers in traps near the tree base. More H. halys egg masses were collected from mid-canopy than from the lower or upper canopy. The adventive egg parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), emerged most frequently from egg masses found at mid-canopy and was not recovered from those in the lower canopy. Results are discussed in relation to the foraging ecology of H. halys and its natural enemies, including TT. japonicus.