The first genetic linkage map for Fraxinus pennsylvanica and syntenic relationships with four related species.
Green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica) is an outcrossing, diploid (2n=46) hardwood tree species, native to North America. Native ash species in North America are being threatened by the rapid spread of the emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis), an invasive pest from Asia. Green ash, the most widely distributed ash species, is severely affected by EAB infestation, yet few genomic resources for genetic studies and improvement of green ash are available. In this study, a total of 5712 high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were discovered using a minimum allele frequency of 1% across the entire genome through genotyping-by-sequencing. We also screened hundreds of genomic- and EST-based microsatellite markers (SSRs) from previous de novo assemblies (Staton et al., PLoS ONE 10:e0145031, 2015; Lane et al., BMC Genom 17:702, 2016). A first genetic linkage map of green ash was constructed from 90 individuals in a full-sib family, combining 2719 SNP and 84 SSR segregating markers among the parental maps. The consensus SNP and SSR map contains a total of 1201 markers in 23 linkage groups spanning 2008.87 cM, at an average inter-marker distance of 1.67 cM with a minimum logarithm of odds of 6 and maximum recombination fraction of 0.40. Comparisons of the organization the green ash map with the genomes of asterid species coffee and tomato, and genomes of the rosid species poplar and peach, showed areas of conserved gene order, with overall synteny strongest with coffee.