Brown rice vinegar as an olfactory field attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) and Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in cherimoya in Maui, Hawaii, with implications for attractant specificity between species and estimation of relative abundance.
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is an agricultural pest that has been observed co-infesting soft-skinned fruits with Zaprionus indianus Gupta. The characterization of olfactory preferences by species is a necessary step towards the development of species-specific attractants. Five olfactory attractants were used to survey the populations of two invasive drosophilids in cherimoya in Maui, Hawaii. The attractants used were apple cider vinegar (ACV), brown rice vinegar (BRV), red wine (RW), apple cider vinegar and red wine (ACV+RW; 60/40), and brown rice vinegar and red wine (BRV+RW; 60/40). For D. suzukii, BRV+RW resulted in more captures than BRV, ACV, and RW, while ACV+RW resulted in more captures than ACV. No differences were observed between BRV+RW and ACV+RW. BRV had greater specificity in attracting D. suzukii compared to ACV, ACV+RW, and RW. For Z. indianus, no significant differences were observed in either the mean captures or specificity for any attractant used. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that (1) BRV and BRV+RW are effective field attractants and (2) D. suzukii has unique olfactory preferences compared to non-target drosophilids, while (3) Z. indianus' preferences do not appear to vary from non-target drosophilids, and (4) the accuracy of relative abundance is impacted by the specificity of the attractants.