Genome-wide divergence among invasive populations of Aedes aegypti in California.
Background: In the summer of 2013, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus was first detected in three cities in central California (Clovis, Madera and Menlo Park). It has now been detected in multiple locations in central and southern CA as far south as San Diego and Imperial Counties. A number of published reports suggest that CA populations have been established from multiple independent introductions. Results: Here we report the first population genomics analyses of Ae. aegypti based on individual, field collected whole genome sequences. We analyzed 46 Ae. aegypti genomes to establish genetic relationships among populations from sites in California, Florida and South Africa. Based on 4.65 million high quality biallelic SNPs, we identified 3 major genetic clusters within California; one that includes all sample sites in the southern part of the state (South of Tehachapi mountain range) plus the town of Exeter in central California and two additional clusters in central California. Conclusions: A lack of concordance between mitochondrial and nuclear genealogies suggests that the three founding populations were polymorphic for two main mitochondrial haplotypes prior to being introduced to California. One of these has been lost in the Clovis populations, possibly by a founder effect. Genome-wide comparisons indicate extensive differentiation between genetic clusters. Our observations support recent introductions of Ae. aegypti into California from multiple, genetically diverged source populations. Our data reveal signs of hybridization among diverged populations within CA. Genetic markers identified in this study will be of great value in pursuing classical population genetic studies which require larger sample sizes.