Invasive bark beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Chile and Argentina, including two species new for South America, and the correct identity of the Orthotomicus species in Chile and Argentina.
The rate of establishment of non-native bark beetle species is accelerating in many parts of the world and is considered a serious threat to forests and forest crops. Distributional data for exotic bark beetles are urgently needed, but they must be based on sound taxonomy. Using primary literature and original records, I review for the first time the invasive bark beetle (Scolytinae) species in Chile and Argentina, and I give a short risk assessment for each. I also provide the best sources for identifying these species. The invasive pine bark beetle commonly referred to in Chilean research as Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) is not that species: evidence suggests that the only Orthotomicus that is or has been in Chile is O. laricis (Fabricius), which is also the Orthotomicus species reported in the most recent research from Argentina. I add new information on the distributions of two other abundant pine-breeding invasive species, Hylurgus ligniperda (F.) and Hylastes ater (Paykull), and I report that populations of Hylastes linearis Erichson have been found in Chile. This is the first known occurrence of the species in South America. Phloeotribus willei Schedl, a tiny bark beetle collected from domestic fig trees in Chile and Peru, has been considered native heretofore. I argue that it must be an introduced Neotropical species, and I present new localities for Chile. I present the first Chilean records of the Myrtaceae specialist ambrosia beetle Amasa truncata (Erichson), an Australian species recently found in southern Brazil and northeastern Uruguay, and new Argentinian records that seem to be the earliest finds of Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) in South America. The Canary Island palm seed specialist Dactylotrypes longicollis (Wollaston) is reported for the first time from South America, from Chile. The presence in Chile of another spermatophage, Coccotrypes dactyliperda (F.), is confirmed. New Chilean regions and new host records are given for Pagiocerus frontalis (F.), a species that breeds in Lauraceae seeds but also in stored maize. Other exotic species treated briefly include Hylastinus obscurus (Marsham), Hylesinus taranio (Danthione), Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), S. rugulosus (Müller), Coccotrypes cyperi (Beeson), and Xyleborinus saxeseni (Ratzeburg). Finally, reports of several species from Chile or Argentina are considered unsupported by evidence: Scolytus kirschii Skalitzky, Pityokteines curvidens (Germar), Coccotrypes robustus Eichhoff, and Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari).