Ticks of Poland, Review of contemporary issues and latest research.
The paper presents current knowledge of ticks occurring in Poland, their medical importance, and a review of recent studies implemented in the Polish research centres on ticks and their significance in the epidemiology of transmissible diseases. In the Polish fauna there are 19 species of ticks (Ixodida) recognized as existing permanently in our country: Argas reflexus, Argas polonicus, Carios vespertilionis, Ixodes trianguliceps, Ixodes arboricola, Ixodes crenulatus, Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes lividus, Ixodes rugicollis, Ixodes caledonicus, Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes simplex, Ixodes vespertilionis, Ixodes apronophorus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis punctata, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor reticulatus. Occasionally, alien species of ticks transferred to the territory of Poland are recorded: Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma transversale, Amblyomma varanensis, Amblyomma spp., Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes eldaricus, Ixodes festai, Rhipicephalus rossicus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The most common species of the highest medical and veterinary importance in Poland is invariably Ixodes ricinus. The review also sets out information on the risks of tickborne diseases in recreational areas of large cities in Poland, ticks as the cause of occupational diseases and dangerous species of ticks attacking people outside the Polish borders. Selected problems of the biology of ticks, the spread of alien species transferred on hosts and prevention of tick attacks have also been presented. The Polish studies on ticks are a valuable contribution to global research on the Ixodida.