Effects of environmental changes on wildlife and pest complex in forest and rural ecosystems.
In the last decades agricolture has undergone deep changes that had strong effects on the environment. Agriculture has been intensified in some areas, while in others has been abandoned. The environment has been influenced by the interaction of social, economic and demographic changes, together with climatic modifications. Intensive agriculture requires an increasing attention for the phytosanitary management, taking into account its environmental impact after the overuse of chemicals in the late sixties of the last century. The control of pests and diseases is now mainly organized in the frame of Integrated Production (IP), that has lead to an impressive reduction of both the load of chemical pollution and pest pressure. In this situation, wild animals, such as wild boars and roes, increase their populations, causing damages to the crops, especially in hilly and mountain areas, that are mostly uncultivated. The phytosanitary situation of many crops is continuously changed following the introduction of pests from other continents: Scaphoideus titanus, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, Metcalfa pruinosa, Dryocosmus kuriphilus, Tuta absoluta, are new pests for grape, corn, chestnut and tomato; another arthropod is an American crayfish and among vertebrates coypu is widespread. The urbanization of rural areas makes the waste problem worst. Many bird species living in the urban areas move easily to cause damage to agricultural production.