A phylogeographic approach to the Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) invasion in Brazil.
Biological invasions have reached large parts of the globe, due to human actions across the planet. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931) is a globally invasive species, always associated with enormous and costly damage to agricultural crops. Native to Southeast Asia, D. suzukii recently (i.e., 2013) invaded and is dispersing through South America. Here, we used a phylogeographic approach based on the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene fragment to explore the invasion dynamics of D. suzukii populations in Brazil. We identified five haplotypes and moderate genetic diversity in Brazilian populations, which are undergoing demographic and spatial expansion. The analyses of molecular variance indicated a high genetic structure among the populations, which is partially explained by their morphoclimatic origin and invasion history. Drosophila suzukii expanded from southern to southeastern Brazil, aided by human-mediated transport of fruits from region to region. The sharing of haplotypes among Brazilian and other invaded regions of the world suggests a single invasion event of D. suzukii in Brazil, originating from previously invaded areas (e.g., North America and Europe). The rapid geographic dispersal and wide variety of fruits attacked by of D. suzukii require immediate implementation of control strategies (legal and phytosanitary) to manage this pest in Brazil.