Outbreaks of antimicrobial resistant Salmonella Choleraesuis in wild boars piglets from central-western Spain.
Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis is the aetiological agent of swine paratyphoid being a highly invasive zoonotic pathogen. Wild boar natural populations are experiencing a demographical expansion as well as some farms are breeding this species to release for hunting with management sometimes identical to that of domestic pigs, including supplementation, grouping, and antibiotic treatments. This situation increases the chance of contact between wild boars and livestock, and potentially induces stress, with different sanitary consequences. The present work aims to describe the clinical features of recent outbreaks caused by S. Choleraesuis in wild boar from central-western Spain, as well as the antimicrobial resistance and phylogenetic relationships of isolates involved. 28 strains of S. Choleraesuis were isolated from 28 different wild boars belonging to 10 different game states located in central western Spain and submitted to the Clinical Veterinary Hospital (CVH) of the University of Extremadura. Samples were taken from different organs and cultured according to the ISO 6579:2002 procedure. Suspicious colonies were identified by PCR and antimicrobial resistance was evaluated by disc diffusion susceptibility test and the presence of the main resistance genes as well as 18 plasmid replicons frequently found among the Enterobacteriaceae was verified by PCR. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis was applied to determine the genetic relationship between isolates. The outbreaks under study were characterized by high mortality (35%-84%) and a septicaemic presentation. S. Choleraesuis was isolated from all the wild boars analysed, and 26 of the 28 isolates presented resistance to at least one antibiotic. The predominant resistances found were against sulphonamide, streptomycin, tetracycline, and doxicicline and sul1, strA-strB, and tetA were the most prevalent resistance genes among isolates. 10 strains carried FIIA, FIB+H/1 or FIIA+H/1 plasmids. PFGE classified the isolates into four different profiles, grouped into two clusters. This results show that prevention against S. Choleraesuis must be considered in the sanitary programs of the wild boar breeders.