A novel NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) plays a limited role in the pathogenicity of porcine circoviruses (PCV2 and PCV3) and PRRSV co-infection.
Co-infection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circoviruses (PCVs) is commonly observed under field conditions and elicits more severe diseases than any singular infection. In this study, the co-infection of PRRSV, PCV2 and PCV3 was analyzed in tissue samples collected from 150 pigs from April 2016 to April 2018. PRRSV, PCV2 and PCV3 was detected in 55 (36.67%), 43 (28.67%) and 3 (2%) of 150 pigs respectively. Remarkably, one lung sample (SD17-36) collected from a diseased pig was co-infected with PRRSV, PCV2 and PCV3. The complete genomes of SD17-36 viruses of PRRSV, PCV2 and PCV3 were determined, which belong to the subgroups of NADC30-like PRRSV, PCV2d and PCV3a respectively. Sequence comparison showed that PRRSV SD17-36 isolate contains a N33 deletion in GP5. Animal challenge study showed that the novel NADC30-like PRRSV SD17-36 isolate is low pathogenic. Our results indicate that the co-infection of PRRSV and PCVs might cause diseases even when PRRSV plays a limited role in the pathogenicity of the co-infection.