Vaccines against Trichinella spiralis: progress, challenges and future prospects.
Trichinella spiralis, the causative agent of trichinellosis, is able to infect a wide range of carnivores and omnivores including human beings. In the past 30 years, a mass of vaccination efforts has been performed to control T. spiralis infection with the purpose of reduction in worm fecundity or decrease in muscle larval and adult burdens. Here, we summarize the development of veterinary vaccines against T. spiralis infection. During recent years, increasing numbers of new vaccine candidates have been developed on the protective immunity against T. spiralis infection in murine model. The vaccine candidates were not only selected from excretory-secretory (ES) antigens, but also from the recombinant functional proteins, such as proteases and some other antigens participated in T. spiralis intracellular processes. However, immunization with a single antigen generally revealed lower protective effects against T. spiralis infection in mice compared to that with the inactivated whole worms or crude extraction and ES productions. Future study of T. spiralis vaccines should focus on evaluation of the protective efficacy of antigens and/or ligands delivered by nanoparticles that could elicit Th2-type immune response on experimental pigs.