Toxicity, phytochemical composition, and enzyme inhibitory activities of some indigenous weed plant extracts in fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.
Drosophila melanogaster being used as model organism is considered as pest of homes, restaurants, and fruit markets. The damaged fruits are also reported to serve as a carrier for various diseases. The current study was designed to evaluate the toxicity of petroleum extract of some weed plants, namely, Euphorbia prostrata, Parthenium hysterophorus, Fumaria indica, Chenopodium murale, and Azadirachta indica, against D. melanogaster. Mortality at 10, 20, and 30% concentrations after 24 and 48 hours was found comparatively low. E. prostrata caused high mortality (51.64%) at 30% concentration and was found more toxic (LC50 27.76; value 0.00) after 72 hours. A. indica showed high LC50 value (value 0.15) compared to other weed plants. The combination of E. prostrata and Bti showed highest mortality (100%; LC50 12.49; P value 0.00) after 72 hours. Similarly, the same combination caused maximum reduction in the activity of AChE, AcP, AkP, α-Carboxyl, and β-Carboxyl enzymes. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, anthraquinones, and terpenoids. FTIR analysis of E. prostrata showed the presence of phenolic compounds. It is suggested that further studies are needed in order to incorporate weed plant extracts in combination with Bti for the management of fruit flies.