The Asian chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus: a global invader and a successful case of classical biological control.
Native to China, the Asian chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (ACGW), was first found outside its native range in Japan and the Korean peninsula in the mid-twentieth century. After appearing in North America in 1974, it was found in Europe a few decades later. Since then, the gall wasp has spread throughout the distribution of chestnut in Europe. The ACGW's discovery in North America and Europe elicited numerous studies to understand its invasive potential in these areas and how to control its spread and impact on chestnut production. Although endemic parasitoids responded positively to D. kuriphilus with low parasitism rates, the most effective management tactic has been classical biological control via the introduction of the parasitoid Torymus sinensis from its native range in China. This review summarizes the history of introduction, spread, and current distribution of D. kuriphilus, and highlights one of the most successful cases of classical biological control against a forest pest.