Improved biosecurity surveillance of non-native forest insects: a review of current methods.
Biosecurity surveillance has been highlighted as a key activity to discover non-native species at the initial stage of invasion. It provides an opportunity for rapidly initiating eradication measures and implementing responses to prevent spread and permanent establishment, reducing costs and damage. In importing countries, three types of biosecurity activities can be carried out: border surveillance targets the arrival stage of a non-native species at points-of-entry for commodities; post-border surveillance and containment target the establishment stage, but post-border surveillance is carried out on a large spatial scale, whereas containment is carried out around infested areas. In recent years, several surveillance approaches, such as baited traps, sentinel trees, biosurveillance with sniffer dogs or predatory wasps, electronic noses, acoustic detection, laser vibrometry, citizen science, genetic identification tools, and remote sensing, have been developed to complement routine visual inspections and aid in biosecurity capacity. Here, we review the existing literature on these tools, highlight their strengths and weaknesses, and identify the biosecurity surveillance categories and sites where each tool can be used more efficiently. Finally, we show how these tools can be integrated in a comprehensive biosecurity program and discuss steps to improve biosecurity.