In situ assessment of Karaj River genotoxic impact with the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test, on feral brown trout (Salmo trutta fario).
The in situ evaluation of the genotoxic impact of the Karaj River was performed using the comet and micronucleus (MN) assays in erythrocytes, liver, gill and kidney of indigenous brown trout, Salmo trutta fario from three different stations, including Varangerud, Asara and Purkan. The results showed that DNA damage significantly increased in sampled fish erythrocytes, liver and gill from low levels in the upstream river (Varangerud) via intermediate levels in downstream (Purkan) to high levels in the middle of the river (Asara), correlating with the river increasing pollution gradient. Gill was the most sensitive tissue followed by blood and liver. Kidney did not respond to the genotoxic gradient of the river. MN test (as a complementary assay) of liver cells of fish was a sensitive biomarker of genotoxic exposure. MN test in blood, gill and kidney did not reflect the genotoxic condition of the river.