Effects of temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).
Aim: Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been found as one of important alien species in recent years in China. For the alien pest, temperature is always a crucial factor for constructing stable population. This study aims to clarify the effects of temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of P. solani population on the host Lactuca sativa. Methods: The developmental duration, developmental rate, survival rate and fecundity of P. solani on L. sativa were compared in the laboratory under the conditions of 20, 23, 26, 29 and 32°C, photoperiod of 14L: 10D, and RH 80%±5%, and the life table of the laboratory population was constructed. Results: The developmental duration of various stages of P. solani all decreased with increasing temperature. The nymphal duration was the longest at 20°C (35.75 d), and the shortest at 32°C (17.90 d). Temperature significantly impacted its survival. The highest survival rate was recorded at 26°C for the nymphal stage (67.33%). The developmental threshold temperature was 12.23°C, and the effective accumulated temperature was 770. 90 day-degrees. Both preoviposition duration and adult longevity decreased with increasing temperature, and the highest fecundity was 88.02 eggs laid per female at 20°C, and the lowest 37.61 eggs laid per female at 32°C. The population trend index was greater than 1 from 20 to 32°C, implying that the population increases at these temperatures and P. solani can adapt to a wide range of temperatures. However, the survival rate at the preoviposition stage was significantly reduced at 32°C, indicating that high temperature is not conducive to P. solani reproduction. Conclusion: Temperature significantly affects the growth and development, survivorship, reproduction and population increase of P. solani, and the most suitable temperature for this pest is 26°C.