Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Ambophily in the dioecious weedy mangrove associate, Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae).

Abstract

Excoecaria agallocha is a deciduous tree species dispersed as mangrove associate in oligohaline to polyhaline areas of the mangrove forest. The existence of male and female tree ratio is 2:1. The ratio of male to female flowers is 16:1. It is an constrained out-crosser and is pollinated by insects like bees, flies, butterflies, and wind, which constitute ambophily. Anemophily make certain the realization of sexual reproduction if the insect pollinators are nor present and such a breeding system is a "fail-safe" strategy for reproductive assurance during colonization. Natural fruit set rate is 92%. Fruit predation by Chrysocoris partricius is 25%; it consumes the fruits prior to their fall from the mother plant. This tree species occupies the cleared or open areas within the mangrove forest and acts as an invasive mangrove associate.