Analyzing coastal wetland degradation and its key restoration technologies in the coastal area of Jiangsu, China.
Coastal wetland degradation severely affects ecological balance and economic and social sustainability. Ecological restoration of degraded wetlands is crucial in research on wetland degradation. A common problem with previous studies is that they use the same tactics and technologies over the whole study area, taking little account of the spatial heterogeneity of wetland degradation. This study focuses on the spatial heterogeneity of wetland degradation, and proposes the goals and technologies for wetland restoration by examining the main issues and causes of the degradation of coastal wetlands in Jiangsu, China. Habitat loss and absolute loss are the dominant forms of degradation in Jiangsu, followed by the existence of invasive species and gradual loss. Land reclamation and invasive species are the primary causes of the degradation of coastal wetlands. Appropriate technologies and engineering approaches are also proposed for the ecological restoration and reconstruction of degraded coastal wetlands against these degradation characteristics. They include the promotion of siltation in native wetlands, vegetation recovery, functional recovery of constructed wetlands, and prevention of invasive species.