Flight capacity test and trajectory analysis of long-distance dispersal of Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae).
Aim: This study aims to investigate the effects of temperature, age and sex on the flight capacity of the alien species Corythucha ciliata, and to analyze its long-distance diffusion trajectory. Methods: The flight capacity of C. ciliata adults and the diffusion trajectory of the population with air flow were measured by using the flight mill system, the high altitude tethered balloon and the HYSPLIT-4 model. Results: The results revealed that the flight distance and flight time of C. ciliata adults were age-dependent, reaching the peak at 10 d after emergence and then decreasing gradually. The flight distance and flight time of 10 day-old adults were the minimum at 19°C among the test temperatures (19, 22, 25, 29 and 31°C), gradually increased with the increase of temperature, reached the peak at 25°C, and then decreased gradually. The flight distance at 25°C significantly increased compared with that at the other test temperatures. The average flight speed reached the maximum at 28°C, which was significantly higher than that at the other temperatures. The flight distance and flight time of females were significantly higher than those of males; however, males had significantly higher flight speed than females. The results of the high altitude tethered balloon survey showed that the population density of C. ciliata reached the maximum at 5 and 10 m. With the increase of altitude, the number of insects caught by trap decreased gradually, the population density at 35 m reached the minimum, and no adults were trapped over 65 m. The southern-northern diffusion routes of C. ciliata in 2015 simulated using the HYSPLIT-4 model were from Zhengzhou city, Henan province to Lingchuan county of Jincheng city, and then to Qinxian county of Changzhi city, and then to Fanshi county of Yizhou city, Shanxi province, and finally to the Northeast of Zhangjiakou city, Hebei province. Conclusion: In the laboratory the 10 day-old adults of C. ciliata at 25°C show the strongest flight capacity. In fields C. ciliata adults could rise up to the altitude of 65 m with air flow, and have the ability to diffuse at low altitude with air flow.