Chemical and genomic diversity of six Lonicera species occurring in Korea.
Lonicera spp. (Caprifoliaceae) are important not only as a common medicinal herb in East Asia but also as one of the most problematic invasive species in North America. In the present study, we performed a systemic analysis of genomic and chemical diversity among six Lonicera species occurring in Korea, L. japonica, L. maackii, L. insularis, L. sachalinensis, L. praeflorens, and L. vesicaria, using chloroplast DNA whole genome shotgun (WGS) sequencing and LC-MS analyses. The phylogenetic and phytochemical relationships did not coincide with each other, but partial consistency could be found among them. InDel-based cDNA marker for authentication was developed based on the genome sequences. Flavonoids, iridoids, and organic acids were identified in the LC-MS analyses, and their inter-species distribution and localization were also revealed.