Production of YY supermale and XY physiological female common carp for potential eradication of this invasive species.
The common carp, Cyprinus carpio, is the third most cultivated freshwater species worldwide, but is also considered an invasive species. The Trojan Y chromosome strategy is one of the most promising methods to eradicate this invasive species. However, obtaining fertile YY supermale (MYY) and YY physiological female (FYY) common carp was thought to be very difficult. The present study focused on the production of androgenetic MYY and XY physiological female (FXY) common carp. We first optimized the conditions for artificially induced androgenesis. The results indicated that the optimum ultraviolet (UV) exposure time was 4 min at an irradiation distance of 26 cm and the optimum initiation time with heat shock (40±0.5 C for 2 min) was 30 min after fertilization. Then, we produced androgenetic MYY Yellow River carp with only paternal inheritance, which were viable and identified by paternity testing and test crossing. Finally, we successfully produced FXY Yellow River carp by feeding 60-d-old MXY with commercially available feed mixed with 17β-estradiol (200 mg/kg) and Flutamide (200 mg/kg) for 3 mo. In conclusion, by combining artificially induced androgenesis with an artificially induced sex reversal technique, we could cost-effectively produce MYY and FXY common carp.